Formal name: Serum phosphate

What is s-phosphate?

Human body functions with the help of lots of minerals. Phosphate is a really important mineral for physiological processes. Phosphate is necessary for bone growth, nerve & muscle production, energy storage etc. Although most of the phosphate is within the bones and teeth, there is still some portion of it flowing within the blood serum. This test determines the level of phosphate in the blood’s serum.

What is being tested?

Phosphorus combines with other substances in the bloodstream and creates several compounds. Although “phosphorus” and “phosphate” – both terms are used in case of the test, but it’s the level of inorganic phosphate that this test counts.

When to get tested?

Generally, abnormality in the level of phosphorus in the blood serum doesn’t cause any noticeable symptom. That’s why this test is typically performed as a follow-up test to an abnormal calcium test. Doctors also suggest performing the test if there is any symptom of abnormal calcium like muscle weakness, bone problems, fatigue etc.

Doctors also prescribe phosphorus test along with other tests if there are symptoms of kidney and gastrointestinal disorders. Moreover, a healthcare practitioner may also suggest phosphorus test for monitoring someone with diabetes or having the signs of acid-base imbalance in the body.

phosphateThe test procedure

This test requires a blood sample from the patient. After reaching a lab, the healthcare personnel will collect the sample of blood by injecting a needle in the arm. Urine can also be a sample for this test by collecting a 24-hour sample.

Your doctor may ask you to follow several things before performing the tests. Follow them properly. This may include not eating anything from midnight. You also should restrain from taking herbal supplements, vitamins etc.

What does the test result mean?

After getting the result, it can be identified if the phosphorus level is abnormal or not. If the phosphorus level is higher than usual (hyperphosphatemia), it may indicate these issues –

  • Kidney failure
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Liver disease
  • Increased dietary intake (phosphate supplements etc.)

If the result indicates a lower level of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) in the blood, it may indicate following conditions –

  • Overuse of diuretics
  • Alcoholism
  • Severe burns
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (after treatment)
  • Chronic antacid usage
  • Severe burns
  • Malnutrition
  • Rickets & osteomalacia

Anything else I should know?

Although phosphorus is really important for having a better health, abnormal level of phosphorus may lead to lots of complex conditions. Excessive phosphorus level can lead to organ damage due to calcification – depositing calcium phosphate into tissues where it should not be. Such situation is quite rare, but other issues like cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis are more common.

In the case of children, the phosphate level generally tends to be higher. It’s because they are growing up with active bone growth. Lower phosphate level in children may lead to improper bone growth. The higher level may indicate that there’s the imbalance in the body’s mineral.

Some soft drinks and pre-packaged foods contain a high amount of phosphorus. Some nutritionists believe that these sources contribute to the over-consumption of phosphorus.


Formal name: Serum Magnesium

What is S-Magnesium tested?

This serum magnesium test is the measurement of the level of magnesium in the blood. This test is most common for diagnosing the magnesium deficiency. As you imagined, it calculates the magnesium level in your blood serum. Magnesium is found in the bones. This is essential for a stronger body and healthier physique. Abnormality in the magnesium level can create lots of critical conditions that can affect the functionalities of the kidney or intestines.

When to use the test?

Magnesium is essential for stronger bone structure. The default range of magnesium in the blood is generally 17-22 mg/Dl (0.85-1.10 mmol/L). This test can also be a part of the recommendations for diagnosing the cause of symptoms like, anxiety, weakness, cardiac arrhythmia, irritability, nausea or diarrhea. Too much calcium/potassium or too low level of this mineral can cause the issues.



1234The test procedure

The test is performed using the blood sample collected from the patient. A needle is inserted in the vein in the arm that extracts a little amount of blood in the ampule. Sometimes, this test is also performed using a urine sample, such as a 24-hour collection.

What the test result means

After performing the test, it will become clear whether it was a lower magnesium level or higher. The lower magnesium level indicates that the person isn’t consuming enough magnesium. It can also be the cause of not absorbing or excreting too much magnesium.

The lower magnesium level is typically the symptom of the following issues –

  • Lower magnesium intake (food habit)
  • Disorder in the gastro intestine (Crohn’s disease etc.)
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Uncontrolled level of diabetics
  • Post-surgery
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Severe burns

If the result is higher than usual, there can be several symptoms of it. This is a rare case and usually the cause of excretion problem or excessive magnesium supplement intake.

  • Kidney failure
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Dehydration
  • Addison disease
  • Diabetic acidosis
  • Hyperparathyroidism

Anything else to know?

Magnesium is generally in the electrolyte tests. The test includes counting of other electrolytes like chloride, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate etc. This evaluation is essential for identifying the person’s electrolyte balance. For example, if the magnesium level is low, then the potassium level is also low in most cases.

For pregnant women, the magnesium level in the blood tends to decrease during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy.

Generally, it doesn’t mean that higher magnesium level is the cause of some issues. Our body always tries to keep the level of magnesium in the blood at a stable rate. It will release magnesium from the bone to the blood if the level is low. That’s why early magnesium deficiency may show normal magnesium level.

There are several drugs that can increase the amount of magnesium in the blood like lithium, some antibiotics, thyroid medicines, aspirin and other products containing magnesium. Drugs that are responsible for decreasing the magnesium level includes diuretics, insulin, laxatives, digoxin etc.

The doctor doesn’t suggest this test so frequently unlike other mineral tests. Doctors suggest especially when a person’s blood contains abnormal calcium level and showing symptoms due to magnesium level imbalance.


Formal name: Creatinine

Serum creatinine is a form of test done to ascertain how well the kidney functions. Creatinine is a by product of waste that builds up in the blood from muscle usage.

How is it used?

An s-Creatinine test is a carried to evaluate the kidney’s health. Kidney functions as a waste (creatinine) removal 2that the body produces at a fixed rate daily. Determining the amount of creatinine present in the blood and comparing it with the standard amount would enhance your healthcare personnel to know how good your kidneys are.  Kidneys have nephrons which help to filter waste products present in the blood and they do this via a tiny cluster blood vessel called glomeruli. They filter impurities/toxins from the blood and store them in the bladder where they are being discharged through urination.

Creatinine is constantly eliminated from the body through the help of the kidney. When a high level of creatinine is discovered in the blood, it indicates that the kidney is damaged and not functioning properly.


4Why get tested?

This test is very important to determine the working condition of your kidneys; to detect any form of disease associated with the kidney and to monitor treatment stages if being treated for kidney disease. This test is also carried out to determine your overall health status.

When to go for a test?

If you experience symptoms of kidney disease such as swelling in your feet or ankles, dry/itchy skin, blood in your urine, painful urination, muscle cramps, frequent loss of appetite, high blood pressure or lower back pain near the kidneys.

 How do I prepare for a creatinine blood test?

Undergoing a creatinine test does not involve much preparation. Fasting is not paramount but prior to the test, you might be asked to refrain from eating cooked meat and taking some drugs that could increase the level of creatinine in your body thereby altering your test results.

Sample needed?

A blood sample would be obtained through your vein into a specimen tube or a urine sample within the range of 24-hours.

What do my test results mean?

The results obtained vary with gender, health history, age and the method through which the test is been carried out.5 Your result does not necessarily indicate you have kidney dysfunctions as your healthcare provider is the only one who could interpret the results for you.

The level of creatinine for a man tends to be of higher concentration than it is for a woman due to the muscle composition present in the body but found in lower concentration in children.

If you have a high concentration of creatinine, it could indicate the presence of muscle disease, kidney disease, dehydration, diabetes or shock. While a lower concentration might be as a result of muscle loss, protein deficiency in your diet or liver disease.

What else to know?

The s-Creatinine test is important to evaluate renal function because it entails several interesting properties. This test could sometimes be performed with other tests such as comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test or a basic metabolic panel (BMP) to check and correct problems associated with the kidney.


Serum-CK (Total Creatine Kinase)

Formal name: Creatine kinase (CK)


Creatine kinase which could also be known as creatine phosphokinase or phospho-creatine kinase is an enzyme that is produced by tissues found in the brain, heart and skeletal muscles.


s-CK (Total Creatine Kinase) test is used to detect and control damaged muscles; it helps to detect ill/dead muscle which eventually leads to enzyme leakage out of the cells, diagnose Inflammatory myopathies such as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, Infectious myopathies, Dystrophinopathies, Becker muscular dystrophy, Rhabdomyolysis, Drugs-induced myopathies resulting from statins, fibrates, colchicines, antimalarials, and cocaine. Enzymes leak out of their various cells into the bloodstream when the cells are ill or damaged. This test sometimes could be employed to unveil a subsequent heart attack with the help of troponin test. s-CK level is found in traces in the bloodstream but the CK level detected to be beyond normal would aid the doctors to determine the muscle that is damaged.


Abnormal concentration of s-CK (Total Creatine Kinase) in the bloodstream could result in various muscular diseases such as acute renal failure, Duchenne muscular dystrophy or heart attack. If you have once experienced chest pain or presently experiencing it, the test is useful in diagnosing a potential attack.  The level of CK in women with X-linked gene are said to be of high concentration for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Also, myositis which is ancreatine-kinase-private-blood-tests-in-london autoimmune disease that brings about severe muscle weakness and damage could be diagnosed with CK test.


When you experience severe muscle pain, weakness or your urine is dark. All these are symptoms of suspected muscle damage.


There is no special requirement needed for the test. A blood sample would be collected from a vein. Please, do inform your doctor if you are using any medication or have any form of allergy before going through the test. You should endeavor to refrain from taking substances like drugs that lower cholesterol, steroids, anesthetics, amphotericin B, also from alcohol, cocaine which could alter CK level.


A blood sample would be collected through your vein into a specimen tube using a sterile needle. You could likely feel a sharp pain as the sterile needle goes in but it won’t last long. The blood sample will be labelled, sent to the lab where it will be properly examined.



  • CPK-1 occurs primarily in the brain and lungs. Elevated CPK-1 levels could indicate:
  • the presence of an injury or bleeding in the brain
  • presence of cancerous cell in the brain.
  • the damage of lung tissue or a seizure.



  • CPK-2 occurs mainly in the heart. A high concentration levels of CPK-2 shows:
  • the presence of a heart injury or damage.
  • an inflammation of heart muscles caused by virus or a heart attack.

CPK-3 occurs in the skeletal muscle. The level of CPK-3 shows the presence of:

  • high use of illegal drug.
  • high rate of immobility.
  • could also indicates inflammation.


It is paramount that you have it in mind that the result varies and it all boils down to the type of condition/injury. Your medical practitioner will inform you of your results and would be the proper person to tell you the treatment method suitable for you.